Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on 24 February last year created an urgent need for NATO to reinforce the surveillance and protection of its Eastern flank. Since then, the Alliance’s “Air Shielding” mission has safeguarded the skies and borders of eight member countries - more than 2,500km of territory, stretching from Estonia to Bulgaria, with fighter jets and ground-based air defences.

To shield this area, the A330 Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) aircraft, owned by NATO* and operated by the Multinational MRTT Unit (MMU), provide air-to-air refuelling (AAR) to Allied fighters, increasing their interoperability, flight time and readiness.

“One year ago we had to react very quickly to deploy our aircraft in support of NATO’s efforts to protect the Eastern flank,” said an MMU spokesperson in Cologne, one of the operating bases of the unit. “This was an important achievement for a two-year-old unit but we were entrusted to do it.”

A330 MRTT MMF Eurofighter

Along 2022, the MMU flew almost 350 AAR missions. Their MRTT tankers have refuelled more than 250 receivers only in the last quarter and offloaded over 900.000kg of fuel, keeping Allied airspace safe.


March 2023: Initial Operational Capability

At any one time, NATO members have around 30 aircraft on patrol on the Eastern flank, including fighters, surveillance aircraft and the MRTTs from the Multinational MRTT Fleet (MMF), giving critical support for strategic tanker and transport capabilities.

“In the current circumstances of increasing uncertainty and need for reliable defence platforms, the A330 MRTT keeps demonstrating its maturity and versatility to support Allied missions”, said Jean Brice Dumont, Head of Military Air Systems at Airbus Defence and Space. “The MMF initiative is a game changer for the partner nations and provides them critical capabilities in multi domain operational theatres”.

In spite of its young age, the seven aircraft of the MMF fleet are already certified as a tanker for Eurofighters using the hose and drogue system at high fuel offload rate (1,300 kg/min – 420 US gal/min) and for F16s and F-35s of the MMF member nations using the alternative boom refuelling system (up to a maximum of 3,600 kg/min – 1,200 US gal/min). Unlike other tankers, the MRTT doesn't require any external or additional fuel tanks inside its cargo hold.

Other allied fighters such as F18s, Harriers, Rafales or Gripens, and heavy aircraft like NATO’s E-3 AWACS or C-17, can be also refuelled by the MMU, which expects to achieve its Initial Operational Capability by 23 March and Full Operational Capability in mid-2024.

A330 MRTT MMF Co Pilot


A key asset for European strategic autonomy

The MMF initiative comprises six European nations (Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Luxembourg, Norway and the Netherlands) who share costs proportionally according to the national commitment of flight hours per year defined in the Memorandum of Understanding. Four of the aircraft are routinely operated from the MMU Main Operating Base (MOB) in Eindhoven (Netherlands), while the other three aircraft operate from their Forward Operating Base (FOB) in Cologne (Germany).

The final two out of nine MRTTs currently on contract for the MMU are expected to be delivered in 2024.

The synergies across nations, the increasing demand on AAR capabilities due to an uncertain global context, and the reduction in costs, have made the MMF programme a ‘critical enabler’ for air-power projection and European strategic autonomy.

MMU operations worldwide, including transport, AAR and MEDEVAC missions, are conducted under the operational authority of the European Air Transport Command (EATC), an organisation composed of seven nations, pooling & sharing some 150 aircraft, including MRTTs, A330s, A400Ms, C295 and C235.

Since February 2022, when Russia invaded Ukraine, the EATC has conducted more than 800 missions as it boosted its activities to support the needs of the member nations in the Eastern flank of Europe.

A330 MRTT MMF Eurofighter


Afghanistan 2021, Rapid Pacific 2022, Jordan 2023

The MMU has also shown its potential outside the European theatre. From the evacuation of civilians and refugees from Afghanistan to the mission in the Indo-Pacific region during theRapid Pacific deployment with the German Air Force.

Six Eurofighters, three MMF MRTTs and four A400M participated on this five-stop journey (United Arab Emirates, Singapore, Australia, South Korea and Japan) whose main milestone was the exercise Pitch Black led by the Royal Australian Air Force.

The largest deployment of the MMU to date is planned for 2023. The MMU will deploy to the Middle East in July to support operations of German Air Force and other allied fighters in the region.

Germany participates with over 60% of the hours of the MMF fleet. The deployment will last three months with one rotation and will mainly focus on air-to-air missions. The German Air Force has been deployed in Jordan since 2015, with A310 MRTT, Tornados and the A400M. 

A330 MRTT MMF Medevac


An ambulance in the air

Besides the AAR and cargo capabilities, the MMF MRTTs can also be configured as strategic aeromedical evacuation (MEDEVAC) aircraft. An MMF MRTT can carry up to six intensive care units (ICUs) on the front, 16 stretchers, 20 seats for medical staff and one medical storage cabinet.

The Unit will be authorised to use this configuration from Q3 2023. One of the nine MMFs will always be used as a ‘flying ambulance’ and, if required, any of the other eight can be quickly converted to the MEDEVAC role.


*The acquisition of the nine A330 MRTTs was carried out by the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation (OCCAR), under the aegis of the NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA). The NSPA is also responsible for the management of the fleet on behalf of the six participating nations.


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